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Five Good Presentation Topics to Help You Prepare Your Speech

Five Good Presentation Topics to Help You Prepare Your SpeechIt is a fact that more than 50% of all the presentation presentations are a fai...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Five Good Presentation Topics to Help You Prepare Your Speech

Five Good Presentation Topics to Help You Prepare Your SpeechIt is a fact that more than 50% of all the presentation presentations are a failure in some way. Therefore, it is important to get things right from the very start. If you consider yourself to be a decent speaker, then you would want to make certain that your speech is not a presentation where you over deliver. There are five good presentation topics which can help you prepare your speech.Develop a master list of all the presentations, which you have ever made. By developing this master list, you will come up with a list of all the subjects that you have addressed. Now go through the topic you have selected and choose the one which you think will provide good clarity and appeal to your audience. Don't hesitate to leave out topics that you do not feel comfortable discussing.You will find that you have discussed on numerous occasions, which you feel you would not be able to discuss. This is the time to choose topics that are relevant to what your talk will be about. Use the following tips to get you started with the selection of good presentation topics.Do research by reading the paper you have been assigned to write on a subject. You might have a strong belief that the topic is wrong or you think you have presented it in a manner that you could not have given it the attention that it deserved. In such a case, go through the paper and write a convincing essay on the topic.Do you feel that the paper will support your point of view? If you do not feel that it will be appropriate for you to present the topic, then think again. You might find that the paper has other ideas to add to the topic. Therefore, never leave out a presentation topic that you feel cannot serve the purpose for which you have selected it.Use all available resources, which may be related to the speech topic, and find out who is writing the paper. If there is no reference available, do not hesitate to contact the author of the paper and get the reference. In case you do not have the person's contact details, then do a reverse search of the name of the writer. This will enable you to contact the writer of the paper without hesitation.You will find that there are few good presentation topics out there for you to choose from. Take the time to go through the topics carefully so that you can come up with a choice that will suit your purpose perfectly.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Importance Of Freedom Of Speech - 1455 Words

Democracy is founded on the belief that every citizen has an equal say in all matters of life and government affecting them. Even before democratic governments were formed, civilizations would come together with different ideas and cultures to unite in the common goal of helping each other grow as a species. Through this unification process civilizations were able to adapt to challenges and advance their technology faster than ever before. Sometimes an agenda or belief becomes split amongst several parties and differences of opinions can create a less than cordial argument about what is right and what is wrong. It is in these moments of confrontation that the importance of free speech becomes essential to finding a resolution that fits the†¦show more content†¦In 1791 the first Amendment was introduced guaranteeing the freedom of religion, press, assembly, and speech. The most common abuse of free speech is when it is used as a means to verbally attack someone personally or a subject inappropriately. All too often racial slurs are yelled out or homophobic insults directed towards someone even though these statements have nothing to do with the topic at hand. It seems that belittling someone for something they can’t change is one of the go to ways of â€Å"expressing† free speech. Catherine Rampell from the Washington Post states; â€Å"For example, when students were asked whether the First Amendment protects â€Å"hate speech,† 4 in 10 said no. This is, of course, incorrect. Speech promoting hatred — or at least, speech perceived as promoting hatred — may be abhorrent, but it is nonetheless constitutionally protected† (Rampell A Chilling Study Shows How Hostile College Students Are Toward Free Speech). Having a different opinion is beneficial; it creates debates which allow the flow of clear and factual information to pass between the debating sides, but when you begin to belittle a person and make it a perso nal battle you lose sight of the actual goal. Secondly, it creates intolerance or animosity towards the opposing side due to the lack of empathy. More often than not you share more similarities than differences with the opposing side on separate subjects or ideas of what’s right and wrong. By simply taking a moment to stepShow MoreRelatedSpeech : Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1116 Words   |  5 PagesTopic/Title: The Importance of Freedom of Speech General Purpose: I want to inform my audience Specific Purpose: I want my audience to understand the importance of freedom of speech. Thesis: Freedom of speech is important because it allows new ideas to surface, encourages the development in social relationships to prosper, and it permits for the truth to prevail. Introduction A. Attention getter There is a famous written saying that adheres to the attitude of every important figure throughoutRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech979 Words   |  4 Pagesthe most cherished one: the freedom of speech. Freedom of speech gives citizens the right to express their own opinions publicly without government interference, violating laws, or inciting any kind of violence or rebellion. However, the first amendment does not mean anyone can simply say whatever they want. There are several topics that are strictly scrutinized by law and there are even some situations in which freedom of speech is lawfully restricted. Freedom of speech is an extremely important partRead MoreFreedom Of Speech : The Importance Of The Freedom Of Speech1039 Words   |  5 PagesFreedom of speech is a right protected by the First Amendment. According to the administrative office of the United States Courts (n.d.), the First Amendment states that, â€Å"Congress shall make no law... abridging freedom of speech.† Freedom of speech is arguably one of the most cherished American values in the First Amendment. As defined by an online unabridged Dictionary (n.d.), The rights covered by freedom of speech include the right to express opinions publicly without governmental interferenceRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1192 Words   |  5 Pagesamendment of the United States’ Bill of Rights states â€Å"Congress shall make no law... prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,†. Freedom of speech tends to be the most appreciated part of this amendment, while also causing the most anger. Most hate speech is protected under it, causing loads of controversy of the years. If the speech is not active fighting words threatening the livelihood of somebody, you’re allowed to say whatever you want. A landmark case in confirmingRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech878 Words   |  4 PagesFreedom of speech is a basic fundamen tal human right. Whether or not on a college campus, people (especially college students) should have the right to speak freely. Everyone does have the right to speak freely, because it is one of the twenty-seven amendments. Colleges all around the United States are now home to many restrictions on free speech. For example, the idea and use of â€Å"free speech zones† has made its way to colleges everywhere. A â€Å"free speech zone† is a sidewalk sized place where studentsRead MoreImportance Of Freedom Of Speech778 Words   |  4 Pagessomeone referring to Freedom of Speech, what comes to your mind? How far should Freedom of Speech go for you or others? And when you see someone practicing Freedom of Speech, do you actually support it? In today’s society, some of us forget what Freedom of Speech actually is and how far it is actually extended. Freedom of Speech means, the right to express any opinions without censorship or restraint. Freedom of Speech is protected under the First Amendment. Freedom of Speech includes but is notRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1526 Words   |  7 Pagesthem listed in our constitution in the 1st amendment is the right to freedom of speech. However, like many liberties, freedom of speech is not absolute under the supreme law of land. What this means is that yes we do have freedom of speech, but it is not protected by the government if it includes obscenity, defamation, fraud, incitement, true threats and speech integral to already criminal conduct. White, K. (2017, June 08) Speech is an important part of our democracy, it gives us the right to speakRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1394 Words   |  6 Pagesconstitution states â€Å"Congress shall make no law [...] abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and t o petition the Government for a redress of grievances.† However, the right to freedom of speech has limits, including violence, inciting a riot, libel or slander and yelling fire in a theatre. At a private company, such as the NFL, there are even more limits to this freedom, depending on the organization’s terms and conditions and any contractsRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech956 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussed on campus to protect their students, but this hinders the quality of the students learning. Public college campuses should not safeguard student’s free speech by providing safe spaces, presenting trigger warnings, or controlling who speaks on campus.   Ã‚  Ã‚   All students attending public colleges should be allowed the freedom of speech and not be shielded from what college officials deem necessary to censor. Colleges that provide safe spaces, physical places students can go to openly discuss controversialRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1374 Words   |  6 Pages Freedom of speech is defined as â€Å"the political right to communicate ones opinions and ideas. The term freedom of expression is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used.†. It is a constitutional right under the first amendment. However, does freedom of speech really mean freedom of speech, or is it limited? Freedom of speech is the ability to speak without censorship or limitation. Also called freedom

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The John F. Kennedy Assassination and the Moonlanding

The assassination of John F. Kennedy is one of the most devastating events in our nation’s history. John F. Kennedy, also known as JFK, became America’s 35th president when he was elected in 1960. Soon after being elected, Kennedy made it a goal to land a man on the moon. As promised, in 1969, Apollo 11 did just that. Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins were the astronauts that were sent into orbit and eventually landed on the moon (Dunbar). These two events helped shape our nation’s history, and were very important in characterizing that time period. There are several different theories on the death of John F. Kennedy and the landing of the moon. After clinching the victory of the election in 1960, it was time for Kennedy†¦show more content†¦Even though he did not survive long enough to see it happen, his promise was kept, and a man stepped on the moon in 1969. As Neil Armstrong stepped onto the moon he said, â€Å"That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind† (Dunbar). Even with this statement and millions of witnesses watching on TV, some people do not believe the â€Å"small step for a man† actually happened. Many people think that the whole thing was a giant hoax. Several people think that it is possible the NASA paid $30 billion for the whole thing to be filmed in a movie studio. The group of people that believe this feels that it is impossible that the United States had the technology to actually land a man on the moon. They think that the United States wanted to establish their leadership role for the rest of the world to see because it was in the middle of the Cold War times. The idea of this conspiracy was all started by a book entitled We Never Went to the Moon. The book was written and published by Bill Kaysing who is a former aerospace technical writer. This launched a several other authors to write books to sway the opinion of Americans. Other books such as Moongate: Suppressed Findings of the U.S. Space Program by William L. Brian and NASA Mooned America by Ralph Rene are just two examples of the several books out there trying to convince Americans that NASA did not really land a man on the moon. However, despite their efforts, only

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Role of the United States in Ww2 and the Holocaust free essay sample

ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES IN WW2 AND THE HOLOCAUST World War II (WW2) was a military conflict that began in 1939. It came to be the worst war in human history based of the loss of lives and material destroyed. Though it began as a European conflict between Germans and the French coalition, it spread to include other nations of the world like the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the United States of America (US). Boundaries and lines between combatants and non-combatants blurred with wars being waged on entire enemy territories and their populates’. Nations fought against each other with Germany, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler, being on the forefront. Germany’s aggression continued to rise but the US was impaired against acting against any aggression by the passing of a neutrality law. This law prevented them from offering assistance to any country involved in foreign conflict. The worst act against human kind and the most memorable one was the holocaust in Germany. The German Nazi party ordered the killing of over 5. 7 million Jews during WW2. 1. 5 million of them were children. Before the holocaust, there was already hatred toward the Jewish population in Europe. Many Germans put blame on Jews for their defeat in WW1 and, Hitler blamed Jews for his country’s short-comings. He referred to them as a plague that needed to be eradicated and believed that they were pulling down the modern society (Microsoft Encarta, 2008). Also, he strongly opposed the Bolshevik leadership that most of the Jews of USSR practiced. Jews were forced to move and live in concentration camps and Jewish reservations. Also, they were forced to carry out German orders, labor without pay and wear yellow stars on their clothing to distinguish them. They did all this while living in atrocious conditions. They had very little to eat, lived in dirty areas and they did not have access to medical supplies. Soon afterwards, Hitler decided to exterminate what he thought of to be the biological source of Bolshevism. A military campaign started in 1941 with masses of Jews shot in front of mass graves that they had dug themselves. By late 1941, the target extended from USSR Jews to those in Serbia and Poland. They were asphyxiated in storage areas with poisonous gases. Jews were not the only victims. The Nazi regime moved from cultural racism to scientific racism. This broadened the span of victims to include the Roma, homosexuals, soviet soldiers and those with physical or mental disabilities (Microsoft Encarta, 2008). The Nazi doctors murdered over 70,000 disabled people in their euthanasia program. Also, some 200,000 Roma were murdered and 3. 5 million soviet soldiers. While the genocide was taking place, the US did not make serious attempts to stop it. Eugenics (proposed improvement of the human species by allowing reproduction between people whose traits are considered desirable) played a major role in contributing to the holocaust. The practices and attitudes of doctors in Nazi Germany allowed them to slaughter over 300,000 patients. Psychologists and psychiatrists in the US mirrored the same attitudes and practices. Organizations rooted in eugenics were cited as a defense against the so called ‘cleansing’ of humanity. The Rockefellers’ Kinsey-based Model Penal Code is one such organization (Messall, 2005). This organization was founded by the Rockefeller family who owned Standard oil which was a giant in the oil industry. The senior member of Rockefeller had wealth peaking at just under $ 1 billion. Rockefeller money had been funding eugenics long before Hitler decided to turn the theories into practical solutions. They influenced mainstream coalitions to support eugenic practices. The wealth they possessed gave them great political influence and by convincing influential figures to join their cause, they further advocated eugenic policies (Messall, 2005). Using these ideas and policies, the Nazis killed even their own countrymen to ensure that Germany had a population that was free of anything Hitler did not like. There have been many arguments that Americans did not know about the holocaust as it was being carried out. Though this may be true to the extent of the greater population, there were some Americans who knew what was going on. The government and some of the media knew about the holocaust but decided to keep the information under wraps. Whenever this information was shared with the public, key pieces of information were left out like the fact that Jews were the major target. Newspapers did not print holocaust information so that the readers could fully understand the extent of the holocaust. The American government was aware of Hitler’s atrocities and they even heard his threatening speeches. Also, they carried out negotiations with Germany for resettling Jews who would be known as political refugees. By remaining neutral, they did nothing to improve the conditions during the holocaust yet they could have tried. It was unclear to policy makers how they could orchestrate rescue operations behind German boundaries. Also, it was difficult for refugees to obtain visas because of the US state refugee policies. US doors were barred to aliens. Reports on the genocide were delayed by the US state department. In 1942, they received a cable from Switzerland telling them of Nazi plans to murder Jews. The information was from Gerhart Riegner who was a representative of World Jewish Congress. He had received this information from a German industrialist with connections to top Nazis. However, it was not given to the intended recipient who was the American Jewish leader, Stephen Wise (Holocaust Encyclopedia, 2011). Riegner had also told the British consulate about the plan and they sent a cable to the London foreign office. It was then passed on to Samuel Sydney, a member of parliament who then sent it to Wise. Having learned of this information, Wise, being distressed, passed it on to the undersecretary of state, Sumner Welles, who told him to refrain from revealing it to the press till it was confirmed. He did not know that the US had already received this information (Holocaust Encyclopedia, 2011). Welles received more cable from Switzerland about mass murders of Jews in Poland. The State department sent a memo about banning the American Legation from sending information to private citizens. Also, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was reluctant to help European Jews. He kept advocating for the US to postpone granting visas, he held a meeting for 29 minutes with Jewish leaders in America, he did not object to negotiating with Hitler and he did not meet with orthodox rabbis. Out of growing concerns of Jews being slaughtered in Europe, the Bermuda conference was held between allies. However, the American delegation arrived with discreet directives to contribute little or nothing to the solution. In addition, American Jewish leaders who had wanted to be part of the conference were denied access. Consequentially, the conference came up with no plausible proposal. The report was kept a secret. The US did not act decisively to rescue Jewish refugees and, efforts were started in 1944 after more information about mass murders were given to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. A war refugee board was established. The allies learned of the killing operations and their locations through reports from Riegner, R. E. Shoenfeld, Henry Morgenthau Jr, Thomas T. Handy and other world organizations. They decided to bomb Auschwitz (where Jews were forced to labor) and railways. They worked to bomb military targets so as to win the war. However, they did not hit the gas chambers. WW2 ended in 1945 and the Nazi regime was defeated. Some refugees in the camps died soon after. The other Jews had no family to return to, only unfriendly neighbors who were afraid that the survivors had come back for their property (Williams, 1993). Their determination to get home contributed to their return to Israel and immigration to other countries. The constrained immigration policies were not lifted during the holocaust and only about 30,000 Jews managed to get into the US every year (Holocaust Encyclopedia, 2011). However, this number could have been 190,000 200,000 had the policies been changed. But, the policies were changed in 1948. Since numerous American Jews fought in WW2, Jews continued to be assimilated with a rise in the number of intermarriages. Also, the suburbs they lived in kept growing and school enrollment numbers went higher. In addition, synagogues were affiliated with others. Following WW2, America became the largest and richest center for practice of Judaism. As a result, smaller groups turned to the American Jewry for support and Jewish refugees from other Arab nations came to the US. For 12 years, Germany was ruled by the Nazi party. Jews were almost completely wiped out from Europe. People suffered unimaginable torture while other nations stood by and watched. There is no telling whether interference by the US would have made a difference but, the feeling is that they could have at least tried to do something about it. The war ended and Nazi regime fell and holocaust survivors were free of oppression. This is not to say that the beliefs that fueled the holocaust are dead because, the ideology behind cleansing of humanity is still at large and it should be tamed. Jews have immigrated to many areas mostly the US. American Jews now enjoy civil and human rights and are considered as part of the population of the US. Though America may have ignored the atrocities during WW2, their attitude towards Jews now is welcoming and supportive. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Bibliography Williams, Sandra, S. â€Å"The Impact of Holocaust on Survivors and their Children. † http://www. sandrawilliams. org/HOLOCAUST/holocaust. html, 1993. Holocaust Encyclopedia. â€Å"The United States and the Holocaust. † United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, http://www. ushmm. org/wlc/en/article. php? ModuleId=10005182, 2011 Lapon, Lenny. â€Å"Mass Murderers in White Coats (From Harvard to Buchenwald: A Chronology of Psychiatry and Eugenics† ttp://www. operationmorningstar. org/mass_murderers_in_white_coats1. htm, 2011. Messall, Rebecca. â€Å"The Long Road of Eugenics: From Rockefeller to Roe v. Wade† October 11, 2005 http://www. orthodoxytoday. org/articles5/MessallEugenics. php Feingold, Henry. Bearing witness how America and its Jews responded to the Holocaust. Syracuse, N. Y: Syracuse UP, 1 995. http://jessicadillon. wordpress. com/about/world-war-ii-how-much-did-americans-know-about-the-holocaust-as-it-was-happening/ Bankier, David. Holocaust. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Unconditional Love Essays - , Term Papers

Unconditional Love Willie: Ok Mom, I'm going out for a little while. Mom: Don't be late, I will be waiting up for you. Willie: Don't worry Mom, I'll be back, go to sleep. Narrator: Little did his mother know he was going to a Frat Party at some crack house on the West Side called "Phillies and Forties". When he arrived at the party, he smoked all the weed and drank all the Old E. he could find. At this point he was insanely under the influence. On the drive home he hit a beagle and a mailbox. The Cops pulled him over. Officer Gibby: Please step out of the vehicle son Willie: Did I do anything wrong Mr. officer Officer Gibby: You are under arrest for reckless endangerment, criminal mischief, driving while intoxicated, destructing government property, and running over a Beagle. Narrator: The officer then drove Willie to the Erie County Holding Center and gave him his phone call. He called him Mother. ----Phone Rings---- Willie: Mama, I'm in jail, please come pick me up. ----Phone slams---- Narrator: She posts bail and he gets released until his court date the next week. The whole ride home is silent until they step into the door. Mom: What you have done is very wrong. You could of killed someone, and more importantly, yourself. I've seen kids disown their children for acts like these. You are lucky you have a mother that loves you as much as I do. I am still very disappointed but know this. Whenever you do anything wrong, it is like a stabbing a knife right into my heart. I will always love you no matter what, please don't take advantage of that. . . . Willie: I'm sorry Momma it will never happen again. Mom: Ok son, go to bed. We will talk about your punishment tomorrow morning.

Friday, March 13, 2020

North Korea and thier nuclear weapons

North Korea and thier nuclear weapons Free Online Research Papers There are many questions to be addressed about North Korea’s nuclear weapons programming. These questions can be why North Korea is not keeping its promise to disable Yongbyon; is the country trying to gain some time; or is North Korea going to be bigger issue in the near future for the six party nations if it does not discontinue its nuclear programming? It may be hard to find answers to all of these entire questions. However; one thing is clear, and that is, North Korea is taking its time and acting slowly to shut down its nuclear facilities. There could be a couple of reasons to be addressed as to why North Korea is not taking six- party talks seriously to stop its main nuclear facilities at Yongbyon and hand over complete details of its nuclear programmings. The first reason that North Korea has not yet disabled its nuclear programming could be that since its intention to take advantage of the six-party nations` leniency. For one thing, last February, North Korea agreed to stop the nuclear programming by the Dec. 31, 2007. In return, six-party nations promised to supply fuel to the country (BBC, 2007). However, the deadline came and passed by and still has not disabled the nuclear facilities at Yongbyon. Another example of leniency is that last year, North Korea demanded South Korea to provide food in return shutting down the nuclear facilities (Smith, 2007). Even though, South Korea did sent food, North Korea did not keep its promise. Additionally, in the beginning of last year, the country was not willing to co-operate with the six-party nations unless it received $25m that was in a Macau bank which was frozen since the United States suspected North Korea had something to do with money laundering and counterfeiting. Once again, in six -party talks, they decided to give the country another chance to and transfer the funds. Even though of the reactor at Yongbyon was shut down in July 2007, it is still not disabled completely (BBC, 2007). The second reason is that North Korea’s intention has never been to disable its atomic programming, but instead was trying to gain some time to finish the programming. The Six-Party nations started negotiations over North Koreas nuclear programming in late 2003. However, in late 2002, the nuclear stand-off began as soon as the United States accused the country has violated 1994 disarmament deal by enriching uranium without permission (CNN, 2007).Six party nations such as South Korea and the United States as well as Japan, are realizing that time is running out for North Korea, and it has to fulfill its promise to denuclearize the Korean Peninsula (Korea, 2008). All these problems started with North Koreas plan to restart a plutonium based nuclear program at Yongbyon, North Koreas plan to build a new highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear program, and the tension that emerged between the United States and South Korea. Even though many problems were occurring, there were some positive things that were happening at the time. The United States began negotiating with North Korea and South Korea about establishing railroad links, demining portions of the demilitarized zone, allowing athletes to compete in the Asian games, and allowing abductees to visit Japan. The problems started occurring when North Korea admits that they have been establishing a HEU program, ending any diplomatic progress. North Korea said that they would stop their program if we decided to make a pact with them. We denied this proposal because we did not want to reward them with bad behavior. In November, the United States declared that Korea broken the rules against the Agreed Framework. There have been various theories on why North Korea had developed this highly enriched uranium program. One of the theories is that they were afraid that the United States was going to attack them, the same way we attacked Iraq.(North Korea Profile) They figured that if we attacked Iraq, an isolated nation with a suspected nuclear program, then we could easily attack North Korea for the same reason. There also have been various reasons why North Korea revealed to us their HEU plan. One theory is that they wanted us to notice them. They did not want us to disengage and isolate from the m.(Korea) the beginning, our response to North Koreas HEU and plutonium programs was very hostile and involved condemning them. Eventually, we took little baby steps to ease the tension. We also agreed to talk to them, but limited the things we could talk about with them. At the very time all of this chaos is happening, our relationship with the South Korea is reaching an all time low. I think there are many things that the United States has to do in order to resolve the problems that are occurring and to prevent more problems from happening in the future. The first thing that I think the United States should do is to treat them as nicely as possible, even if it means going against what we believe and letting them get away with bad behavior. In the long run it might be a bad thing to do because it could influence other nations to think that they can walk over us and take advantage of us. However, I think it would be the correct thing to do right now because the last thing anyone wants is a nation that is angry with you that holds nuclear weapons. If, however, North Korea refuses to accept our proposal for negotiations and does not agree with anything that we have to offer, I think the only other option is to attack them with full force. We have to sneak out any hidden places where they are making nuclear weapons and get rid of them. We have to let them know that we are not fooling around them and that we mean business. If we are destined to go to any kind of war with them, even nuclear, in the future, then it is best to attack them while they have limited nuclear weapons, rather waiting a couple before they have more artillery than we do. North Koreas highly enriched uranium nuclear program and our recent struggles with South Korea could result with terrible things to come. If we do not think of a plan to get rid of all their nuclear weapons, the world could be facing tough times in the near future. Dealing with North Korea is a must, and we need to do whatever we can to take care of the situation. In a discussion with the United States and China in Beijing on April 24, 2003, North Korean officials admitted for the first time that they possessed nuclear weapons. North Korean officials claim to have reprocessed and reproduced spent fuel rods and have threatened to begin exporting nuclear materials, unless the United States agrees to one-on-one talks with North Korea. Tension between the United States and North Korea have been running pretty stiff and high since early October of 2002. Assistant Secretary of State James Kelly informed North Korean officials that the United States was aware that North Korea had a program that was allowing them to enrich uranium for nuclear weapons. Initially North Korea denied this, but later confirmed the veracity of the US claim. In confirming that they had an active nuclear weapons program, they also declared the Agreed Framework agreement. The Agreed Framework signed by the United States and North Korea on October 21, 1994 in Geneva agreed that: North Korea would freeze its existing nuclear program and agree to enhanced International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, Both sides would cooperate to replace the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (D.P.R.K.) graphite-moderated reactors for related facilities with light-water (LWR) power plants, Both countries would move toward full normalization of political and economic relations,Both sides will work together for peace and security on a nuclear-free Korean peninsula,and Both sides would work to strengthen the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. (Albright,ONeil) Bush has established its top priorities in foreign policy. He claims that an acts in the government to improve the international community through negotiation and cooperation. Likewise President Bush remark It is to inspire and be inspired by other nations to work together toward a peaceful and prosperous future (BBC News). Bush, as well as our society, feels the president should be strong- especially in international politics and policies. When the United States was attacked September 11, 2001, the people looked to the president to lead, and in essence, seek revenge. On both of these levels of domestic considerations, we will never know to exactly what extent they influence the presidents choice of action, but they help us in understanding some of the foreign policy decisions. Going beyond the individual to the expectations of the position, the role consideration plays an influential domestic part in the response to an external event and ultimately foreign policymaking. President Bu shs most important goals currently are internationalism, national security, limiting weapons of mass destruction, and nationalism. Bush has encouraged democracy and democratic ideals in other countries. American internationalism (BBC news) is what our president call his foreign policy. American internationalism seeks to preserve liberty and to promote opportunity, human dignity, freedom, prosperity, and peace, both at home and abroad thats basically what bush American internationalism stand for. Bush, as well as our society, feels the president should be strong- especially in international politics and policies. Going beyond the individual to the expectations of the position, the role consideration plays an influential domestic part in the response to an external event and ultimately foreign policymaking. Furthermore to do this, Bushs administration has outlined some specific objectives. Allies are crucial to conduct foreign operations, so the Bush has joined several international organizations that allow it to serve at the forefront of international policy. Some of the more famous ones are the United Nations, which is the biggest organization and has many sub-level organizations, the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank Group (Directory of Economic, Commodity and Developmental Organizations). Knowing that United States is involved in these international organizations President Bush refuses to listen to UN and decided to attack Iraq (NY times). Today issues of terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and Middle East peace are front runners in American foreign policy. These current issues facing the US, compiled with traditional objectives in international relations, dictate the current most important countries and actors to the United States. The threat of weapons of mass destruction was enough to cause the United States to attack pre-emotively in Iraq. In the Middle east, as well as elsewhere, the threat of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons has increased exponentially. The government does not know which groups have them, what their capabilities are, or when the United States and its allies could be attacked by them. As technologies have increased and become more available, the need to know this information has become even more crucial in order to strategize and prepare. The United States must remain close to both its allies and enemies in order to avoid the possibility of being attacked at home or abroad. Furthermore Since September 11, 2001, the United States, with the help of its allies and partners, has dismantled the Taliban, denied Al-Qaida a safe haven in Afghanistan, and defeated Saddam Husseins regime in Iraq. Many countries play a vital role with US assistance, especially regarding intellig ence. Preventing terrorism on the homeland is a priority but also is prevention elsewhere. That is why consistent relations are maintained especially in the Middle East, but also elsewhere. One of President Bushs four objectives in the War with Iraq was the removal of weapons of mass destruction (Dunn). These weapons include chemical, biological, and nuclear capabilities. Many countries have, or will have nuclear capabilities, and the numbers will only increase. Not all of these countries are known but some of importance includes North Korea, Pakistan, India, Iran, and every other country with related technologies. All nuclear capable countries, both allies and otherwise, are vital to defense policy making of the United States. Nationalism is very important to the people of United Stated and our dear President Bush uses this idea to persuade the people. Many symbols have been adopted as symbols of freedom, especially after the September 11 attacks. As a result of the rise of nationalism, ideology tends to decline, which means the United States gives ideology very little importance. Leaders such as the President Bush use example of symbol like the symbol of freedom as a symbol to persuade the citizens of the United States to agree with him. In a speech the President gave on the need for freedom in Cuba Today, the struggle for freedom continues it hasnt ended in cities and towns of that beautiful island, in Castros prisons, and in the heart of every Cuban patriot. (Dunn). A way nationalism is also seen in this country is in its war against terrorism. Ever since the September 11 attacks, almost all of the governments attention has been on the war against terrorism. This can be seen through a statement made by the President on July 24, 2003, And this [September 11] was the merest glimpse of the violence terrorists are willing to inflict on this country. They desire to kill as many Americans as possible, with the most destructive weapons they can obtain. They target the innocent as a means of spreading chaos and fear, and to shake our national resolve.(Dunn) The use of terrorism as a symbol was a way to persuade the citizens of the United States that this war is justified. National security has become a large focus for President Bush and Congress, as well as the international community. Following the tragic events on 9/11/01, the importance of allies and partners became even more important to Bushs administration. While the United States had not looked to act creatively in the past, multilaterals became crucial in order to determine how to thwart terrorism in the most effective way. When threat is put on U.S. homeland security and elsewhere, the United States defense policy can step in; however; defense policy can become costly due to fact of utilizing the military will result in more military spending in order to complete the mission. The U.S. national security strategy is based on a distinctly American internationalism that reflects the union of our values and our national interests. The aim of this strategy is to help make the world not just safer but better (US, 1). When dealing with matters of foreign policy, results in the makings of a defense p olicy, which is considered as a subset of foreign policy. Strong military capability is an essential means in dealing with foreign policy due to the fact that countries such as North Korea, China, and Russia all pose a potential threat to destroy using weapons of mass destruction.(NY times) When threat is put on U.S. homeland security and elsewhere, the United States defense policy can step in; however; defense policy can become costly due to fact of utilizing the military will result in more military spending in order to complete the mission. North Korea is possibly the least accessible, and the most brutal and repressive country in the world. (Martin, 2006) Since its formation after World War II very little information has left the country. What has left are the defectors and the stories of horrible atrocities against humanity the government is bestowing upon its citizens. Classified as a democracy, it is just a mask hiding the Kim Dynastys totalitarian ways. With its ideology of Juche, they have relied as little as possible on outside help. They rule and produce on the inside, with only the close to communist China being its biggest factor for production of money. Human rights are completely unheard of, and reports of torture within its reform camps are common from those that flee and escape Kims grip. Humanitarian aid is being pulled, and the country has started to show some of its nuclear power to the world. While these are just some of the issues at hand, North Koreas dignitaries show no sign that they have broken al l human rights laws, and that the country is in a state of economic need. With North Korea finally being recognized for its harsh living conditions for its people and the human rights violations being brought upon them, more and more people are seeing what is actually happening. With this international relationships are teetering as North Korea removes any help the people may get from outside sources. The testing of North Koreas first bomb in 2006, there have been many moves to attempt to De-denuclearize the North. Yet still, talks are still being made to attempt to join North and South Korea and bring peace to the area. The state, due to its Juche ideology, has had most humanitarian aid removed from the country lately. Even with humanitarian aid, the state is left with low supplies of food and power. Monthly wage of farmers decreased in 2005 when a ban on free markets was raised, where in some cases they did not make over $1 a month creating a giant surge for those to change jobs, creating a larger deficit in food. Clean water is in scarcity, as well as access to good health care and hospitals. Human rights infractions are constantly broken among its citizens, and there is nothing they can do to fight the power Kim holds in the top seat of the state. (North Korea Profile) Since North Korea announced it had tested an atomic bomb underground in October 2006, several countries including China, South Korea, Russia, Japan and the United States have been in a constant state of discussion on what to do to the North. In an attempt to begin to make the state de-nuclear, agreements have come forth which have shut down Yongbyon nuclear reactor, which is a main source of North Koreas weapon plutonium. Kim also ordered other plants to shut down in exchange for a large stock pile of fuel oil. Several funds previously frozen in Macau of Mr. Kims have also been unfrozen, but it is unlikely this may soften his actions and what his people suffer. (Background Note) North Koreas nuclear weapon power makes it the most dangerous nuclear power in the world. Defectors from the country are also aware that Kim Jong-Il is stockpiling chemical weapons. So much so that he may have enough to decimate South Koreas population. (Martin) Relations between Japan and North Korea are very stiff as well. North Korea had previously abducted several Japanese citizens, and Japan wants to know what has happened. Over 20 of its citizens were taken. Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, vows not to normalize relations until they know what has happened of these people. George Bush has also vowed not to begin discussions until this has been figured out. North Korea says they know nothing of the abductions, and none of those listed missing had ever entered North Korea.(North Korea Profile) In an article written by Adam Liptak called , â€Å"Is the Group Responsible for the Individual’s Crime?† he described the case of the Pakistani Army and the tribal elders near the Afghan border. In order to save their town, it was decided that the elder should â€Å"turn over 72 men wanted for sheltering AL Qaeda Members† (p17). This decision of is commonly used throughout the world, especially when it comes to military actions. This is what we call collective sanctions. A sanction by definition is a social control to enforce society’s standards. Thus, in order to maintain the orderly nation, collective sanctions are necessary. People value group identity, so it is the group’s responsibility to parent the individual members. People are always in a part to a group because people lived a life that circles around what we called â€Å"group life†. People are always a member of a family, school, or a society. We people have learned that individual should share the responsibility of others in our groups because not only problems can be solved more easily, but also that we all share a responsibility to watch over the others. For example, in a Chinese family, constituted of brothers, the elder are punished for whatever that younger brother did wrong because it’s his responsibility to watch over the young ones and not allowing them to do wrong.. This is yet another example of collective sanctioning. The use of collective sanctions is a good idea for a nation to proper function. Liptak quotes that â€Å"Group members might be punished not because they are in an advantageous position to identify, monitor, and control responsible individuals, and can be motivated by threat of sanction to do so.† A prefect example would be the offer that President Bush made to the Afghanistan, where he said â€Å"the Taliban will hand over the terrorists, or they will share their fate.† This is the use of collective sanction. Since the Untied States of America can not find out the individual’s crime, and may have been unable to catch the terrorists, the terrorists may make another attack to other cities or countries. In older to avoid another attacking, the collective sanctions are necessary. In addition, another case of collective sanction appeared when the world that Koreans are making some nuclear weapons. The United Nations are against North Korea government to make any type of nuclear weapons, and demanded North Korea to stop or the Nations such as Denmark, Belgium,Norway, Sweden,Iceland,Finland,France,Germany,and Spain will obstruct with their economy sources. The question is; will North Korea government stop making nuclear weapons under the threat of international sanctions? There is no doubt that the North Korea should stop the process, not only due to the threat of international sanctions, but also because the people in North Korea don’t want to become poor. They put pressure on their government to stop the process of making nuclear weapon, to maintain a stable economy. In this case, collective sanctions are necessary to maintain a peaceful world order. Those who are opposed to group sanctions said that the application of group sanctions is unfair to the others who did not commit any crime. â€Å"Rich people can buy their way out of any punishments.† (p18). This is somewhat true; however, this decision showed a need for the collective sanctions. Collective sanctions are a good idea because people value group identity, and this forces the group to work together more tighten and thus making the sanctions a necessity thing for a properly function town. Since there are people who can but their way out of punishment with their wealth, collective sanctions will make someone else who are aware of what will happen to report the case, and thus punish those who deserve to be punished. Liptak said, â€Å"If we recoil at the idea of collective responsibility, it is because we are afraid the village is out of the political mainstream. The government never says it’s going to do that in downtown Kabul, where the rich guys live.† Collective sanctions are practiced to those who are not acting properly, and are used to maintain the order of the nation. In the quote, it means the same thing. The government won’t do such thing to a place where the rich people lived because they know the rules and they will obey them. On the other hand, a place where no rules are followed, collective sanctions is the best way to commit to the obedience of the people of that place. Another thing that further increased my reason that north Korea is a threat is a documentary that I rented from Blockbuster called â€Å"The Fog of War†. In the documentary, The Fog of War, Robert McNamara Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968 said, Rationality will not save us. McNamara argues, even though we failed, we did behave rationally. Meaning, they acted upon their best evidence and motives, rationally; however, in the end they failed to realize the truth of the matter. Basically, the reason we did not have nuclear war was out of sheer luck. Therefore, McNamara draws the conclusion that rationality had failed them, and therefore it will not save us in the future. Another point that this lesson implies is that classical nuclear deterrence does not work. Nuclear deterrence is based on the rationality of the players. Since rationality is deemed to be unreliable, it would imply that we are all doomed. The problem with this statement is that rationality has been the only thing that has saved us thus far. If rationality was unreliable then we would have been doomed from the start. However, the rationality of nations leaders has proven to keep us away from a nuclear war. Even though McNamara claims that it was luck that had prevented them from a war, it was the rationality of a former U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, Llewellyn Tommy Thompson, who advised President Kennedy not to attack Cuba. So, in fact, it is rationality that saves us. To further develop this theory we must look at the evolution of the US nuclear deterrent theories and what it is today in regards to new threats. Currently, the US possesses unquestioned superiority over any potential opponents. However, ever since the 9/11 terrorists attacks up until the present, the US has felt threatened by new opponents, such as non-state based players and rouge nations. In order to protect US national security, the Bush administration has felt the need to pull out of the SALT 1 Treaty and build ABMs. As a result of such an aggressive move, the US has received much criticism. Recently, Russian President Vladimir Putin publicly warned against the US building of ABMs, claiming that a new arms race will begin if they continue. However, the Bush administration strongly believes that ABMs are necessary to protect them from missile launch attacks from irrational players,meaning rouge nations. With the rouge nations as a threat, it would seem that classic nuclear deterrent fails, since the US claims that the rouge nations leaders are irrational and would attack the US. However, the likelihood of rouge nations att acking the US is highly unlikely. The rouge nations that appear as a threat to the US would be Iran, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, Afghanistan, maybe Syria, and North Korea. The US fears that those nations could possibly launch ICBMs capable of hitting North America. However, according to top-secret U.S. National Intelligence Estimates found that while many nations are potentially interested in long-ranged missiles, almost none have, or will ever have, the technology or funds to develop them, or to remotely threaten the United States. These rouge nations are rational players that realize the strength and credibility of the US, and what consequences they would safe if they were to attack. Therefore, classic nuclear deterrence is still applicable. Terrorism seems to disclaim nuclear deterrence since rationality and communication does not apply. However, as stated earlier, it is difficult for rouge nations, including terrorists, to possess the credibility and capability to launch nuclear weapons. If weapons such as ICBMs are too expensive, than there is also the threat of terrorist groups possessing chemical or biological weapons. According to Michael Rebehn writing for Open Democracy, it is now obvious that chemical and biological weapons have indeed become the ,poor mans nuclear bomb; a cheap and portable option for those, like terrorists or ,rogue states, without access to expensive nuclear technology. If terrorists were to strike the US with a biological weapon, it would be difficult to react since terrorists are often non-state based players. The US might seemingly not use old deterrence theories with these new threats; however, the example of the US invasion in Afghanistan is a clear example of the US using classic nuclea r deterrence. The US retaliated against the non-stated based terrorists in Afghanistan since the nation was held accountable for hosting the training camps of the Al-Quaeda. Nuclear Deterrence is not dead. Even with new threats such as rouge nations and non-state based players. As Keith B. Payne writing for The Journal of International Security Affairs said, The confidence in deterrence that typified the Cold War now is presumed to apply to post-Cold War rogue threats,as if the dramatic changes in opponent and context are irrelevant. It is obvious that the US has evolved the nuclear deterrence theories as well as added some modifications to keep the US as the superior nation. The US today has the ability to protect themselves from nuclear missiles attacks (ABMs) as well as the ability to launch them (First Strike). By analyzing the US evolution of deterrence we can see that McNamaras lesson does not apply, even with new enemies. Rationality has and continues to remain our source of reliability and hope. In an article How to Stop Nuclear Terror,the author Allison Graham discusses that although President Bush has determined that terrorist nuclear attacks on the U.S. is the biggest threat facing the country in the future, his administration has not created a clear plan to prevent the issue. She uses a quote from the President to show that he thinks that the highest priority is to keep terrorist from acquiring weapons of mass destruction. Graham goes on in her introduction to explain that the administrations inaction is a reflection on their inability to understand that nuclear terrorism is in fact preventable. She says that the problem should be combated at the root, which is the fissile material, because without that material, nuclear bombs can not be made. She then introduces her idea of the Three Nos: no loose nukes, no new nascent nukes, and no new nuclear states. In the next section of her article, Graham presents a number that I found extremely startling and eye-opening. She says that According to best estimates, the global nuclear inventory includes more than 30,000 nuclear weapons, and enough hue and plutonium for 240,000 more. Even more startling is the fact that, according to Graham, hundreds of these weapons are stored in areas where it is not that difficult for certain criminals to steal them and sell them to terrorist. She then gave examples of people who were apprehended trying to smuggle nuclear weapons or nuclear material. She also explained how easy it would be to smuggle nuclear weapons into the U.S. Next, Graham discusses how Saddam-era Iraq is not even on the top ten countries most likely to provide nuclear weapons to possible terrorist. Graham believes that Russia would top the list because of their enormous supply of nuclear material. Pakistan would rank next because of its ties with Al-Qaeda. Next would be North Korea because they have already sold weapons to countries such as Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. She also explains that the Bush administration HAS taken steps to reduce the dangers of a nuclear attack by terrorist, however the number of actions they HAVE NOT taken is longer and more worth worrying over. Graham also discusses a point that I find extremely true and important. The Bush administration used the possibility of Saddam selling Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) to terrorist as an excuse and reason for the invasion of Iraq. After WMDs were not found, the Bush administrations credibility in regards to many things, namely WMDs has been severely damage d. Also in the almost year and half that the U.S. was trying to get the support of other countries, North Korea and Iran both developed their programs. Graham says that preventing nuclear terrorism will require a plan that denies access to weapons and materials at their source, detects them at borders, defends every route by which a weapon could be delivered, and addresses motives as well as means. I also agree with her stance on this issues because there are many radical people in the world today who would use nuclear weapons in a heartbeat for a reason that is not even completely clear. In conclusion, nevertheless, North Korea keeps promising to discontinue its nuclear programming; one thing is getting clearer that the country is taking advantage of six-party nations by receiving food, fuel supply, and funds. It seems like the country’s intention was never denuclearize itself. North Korea likes the attention that it is getting from six- party nations as well as its neighboring countries. In my opinion, North Korea always had the intention to be seen a threat to its surrounding countries. It seems like the country tries to own things forcefully. Therefore, it needs some kind of nuclear weapon to show Asian countries that North Korea is too strong to be mess with. Observing what went on for two years, I think, it is getting harder and harder to make North Korea stop its nuclear programming. Six-Party nations should take further action and be stricter on the country by showing North Korea that the game is over. The nuclear facilities at Yongbyon must be shut dow n immediately. I believe that it is true that both traditional and current foreign policy objectives determine current relationships between the United States and other countries and various international actors. Traditional objectives of international security and trade have always shaped relations in the international system. Today, issues of terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and Middle East peace also help shape relationships with the US abroad. Current policy objectives shape US international relations. President Bush as the chief decision maker, and an individual, influence foreign policy greatly, however it is also difficult to determine to what extent because he needs to be responsive to societal beliefs, values and opinions as to maintain support for reelection. In addition, as the most powerful state, the United States does not appear to be too concerned with systemic variables such as resources. As I stated Our President Bush clearly do defined foreign policy objecti ves and goals. President Bush has hundreds of foreign policy goals and objectives, its most important goals currently are internationalism, national security, and limiting weapons of mass destruction. A divided government within Bushs administration (Dunn) this mean that sometimes makes it difficult for them create clear strategies both domestically and internationally, but both groups are willing to compromise in order to deal effectively with any problems. Thats how I view the Foreign policy that our dear President Bush have taking in considerations. As the largest superpower, the United States has been given the responsibility of leading the global community through its actions and words. That is, the opinions and values of the public (as well as interest groups that represent those beliefs) are often an important consideration in a democracys foreign policy decision-making. I believe that if we dont stop North Korea they can and will use those nuclear weapons. It may not necessa rily be on us but it wont be pretty no matter where they put it. Work Cited BBC. â€Å"QA: N Korea nuclear deal† BBC news Dec. 2007. CNN. â€Å"North Korea misses nuclear deadline† cnn.com/asia Dec. 31 2007. Korea. â€Å"Seoul, Washington press for Pyongyang nuclear declaration† Korea Net March 27, 2008. Foreign Relations March 27, 2008 Smith, Diana. â€Å"South Korea to Resume Rice Aid to North Korea† Efluxmedia June 2007. Martin, B. (2006) Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty. St. Martins Press Korea, North. (2006). World Almanac Book of Facts North Korea Profile. (2006, November). International Debate. Vol. 4 Issue 8 Liptak, Adam. â€Å"Is the Group Responsible for the Individual’s Crime?† Week in Review. New York Times, 8 Feb. 2004 Dunn, David Hasting. A Doctrine Worthy of the Name?: George W. Bush and the Limits of the Pre- Emption, Pre- Eminence. Diplomacy Statecraft (2006):1-29. The National Security Strategy of the United States, 2002 (NSS 2002), New York times, May 10, 2007,p.6 This is war, New York Time, September 16, 2001. May 10, 2007. 0p.9 Phillip Gordon Bush outlines foreign policy Ft 1-2/2/3. BCC News The Fog of War. Errol Morris. Robert S. McNamara. Sony Pictures, 2003. Graham, A. (2004). How to Stop Nuclear Terror. Foreign Affairs Journal, 83 (1), 64-74 Albright, David/ ONeil, Kevin(2000) Solving the North Korean Nuclear Puzzle,Institute for Science and International Security, Isis Press, p.34-35 Research Papers on North Korea and thier nuclear weaponsThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into Asia19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeTwilight of the UAWQuebec and CanadaGenetic EngineeringAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2Capital Punishment

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

DESCRIPTION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

DESCRIPTION - Essay Example A court case is similar to a battlefront with lawyers on the frontline of the battle. In this regard, there is a rush of the adrenaline as lawyers present a blow-by-blow detail of a case they wanted to win in a similar way that an army advances towards the enemy line looking forward to a hard-fought victory. In effect, a lawyer who wins a court case will have a feeling of victory written all over his or her face while on the same time appearing to be reflecting on the manner they achieved this victory. While lawyers deliver most of their presentations with punch and zeal, a lawyer will appear humble and pensive after winning a court case. In a way, the time taken to conclude a court case appears like the drama of life, which people say starts with a wail and ends with a sigh. This pensive and humble feeling is usually accompanied by joy, which is indicative of delight from a feeling of a heavy load taken off the lawyer’s back with the lawyer wishing to relive the moment each